A systematic review of intervention research examining effective student wellbeing in schools and their academic outcomes

Impact Map Evidence Gap Map

Evidence Gap Map

The tables below visualise the available evidence and gaps in evidence that underpin the results presented in the Impact Map. The 75 studies were categorised into seven intervention types and defined by five sets of characteristics. For example, the most evidence was available for social-emotional skills programs in primary schools, delivered by the trained classroom teacher over a long period, targeting academically at-risk students. Empty cells indicate a lack of high-quality evidence for the type of intervention and characteristic, and suggest a need for more interventions of that nature and the need for further research.

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School setting
Intervention mode
Program duration
Grouping size
Intervention approach
Intervention type
Combined K-12
Short (<3 months)
Moderate (< year)
Long (> year)
Small (<11)
Medium (11-20)
Large (>20)
Targeted: Academic risk
Targeted: Disad-vantaged
Targeted: Special needs
wellbeing imageImproving mental wellbeing: Belonging & engagement
wellbeing imageImproving mental wellbeing: Mentoring
wellbeing imageImproving mental wellbeing: Social-emotional skills
wellbeing imageImproving mental wellbeing: Cognitive skills
wellbeing imageImproving mental wellbeing: Behavioral skills
wellbeing imageEncouraging physical activity: Exercise & relaxation
wellbeing imagePreventing harm from tobacco, alcohol & drugs